Using a Video Game as an Advance Organizer: Effects on Development of Procedural and Conceptual Knowledge, Cognitive Load, and Casual Adoption
This paper reports on a study aimed at investigating whether a video game can act as an advance organizer for teaching a military call for fire task in order to improve learning efficiency. Participants were 23 males and 45 females, randomly assigned to one of four conditions. Conditions were developed by a 2 x 2 matrix using video games with and without advance organizers to enhance decision-making skills. Participants completed two increasing levels of training that were followed by posttests in several areas. Results indicate that commercial, off-the-shelf video games do not appear to increase learning effectiveness. However, individuals who utilized an educationally relevant video game prior to learning reported more interest in continuing to learn. Unfortunately, they also reported investing higher cognitive load to acquire equal knowledge compared to the traditional outline advance organizer. These data support recent findings that suggest that ill-structured game-based learning environments can impede learning outcomes due to the extraneous cognitive load imposed by gaming elements.
Journal of Online Learning and Teaching