The Effects of Instructor Control of Online Learning Environments on Satisfaction and Perceived Learning
This paper explores the design of a blended learning environment in a transition from face-to-face and seeks to determine whether learner characteristics and background together with blended learning design elements are significant factors for learning outcomes such as intrinsic motivation, satisfaction, knowledge construction and learning performance in blended learning. It is aimed at examining the learner characteristics and backgrounds such as age, gender, self-regulation, attitudes, family and social support as well as the management of workload in blended learning. It is again to find out the levels of use and satisfaction with blended learning design features such as interactions, learning management system tools and resources, face-to-face support and technology quality by learners. Students from three schools and one directorate were involved in a face-to-face set up in the first part of a seventeen week semester and in an online set up in the second part. They finally had a face-to-face at the end to review their work after which they took end of semester examinations. A questionnaire survey was administered to 270 respondents in this group to gather data on student characteristics and background, design features and three of the outcomes. The examination results were used as a measure of the performance variable in the learning outcomes. We applied the online self-regulated learning questionnaire for data on students’ self-regulation, the intrinsic motivation inventory for data on motivation and other self-developed instruments to measure the other constructs. Descriptive statistics showed that the identified learner characteristics manifest strength for blended learning design and the learners’ involvement with design features was found to be high and satisfactory. ANOVA results showed no significant differences between age groups in performance and t-test results showed no significant differences between male and female students. Regression analysis results showed learner attitudes as predictors of learner satisfaction and motivation while workload management is a significant predictor for learner satisfaction and knowledge construction. Among the design elements, regression results showed only learner interactions as significant predictors of knowledge construction and satisfaction. As a consequence, a number of learner characteristics and design features are seen to be important for blended learning design and the non-significant ones remain a focus for future research.