Presence in E-learning : Theoretical Model and Perspectives for Research
This article proposes a model of presence in e-learning that has some similarities with but also some important distinctions from the model of community of inquiry in e-learning (Garrison & Anderson, 2003). It addresses the notion of presence from a different angle, characterizes and specifies it differently. The author outlines the epistemological referents of the model proposed. Then, she describes the interaction processes at work in each of the three dimensions of the model: socio-cognitive presence (1), socio-affective presence (2) and pedagogical presence (3). She also provides a schematic representation of this model. Then, she shows how its three dimensions can be related to each another and presents the main hypotheses that result from these relations. In conclusion, the author outlines that theoretical and empirical research is needed to confirm the relevance of the model proposed, to identify its strengths and to suggest axes for improvement.
The Journal of Distance Education