A Case for the use of Pedagogical Agents in Online Learning Environments
Progressive multimedia learning tools have been extensively researched over the past twenty years. Two of these tools include intelligent tutoring systems (Graesser et al., 2004; Ma, Adesope, & Nesbit, 2011; VanLehn, 2011) and pedagogical agents (Mayer & DaPra, 2012; Moreno, Mayer, Spires, & Lester, 2001). In this paper we discuss pedagogical agents, which are visible characters in multimedia learning environments designed to facilitate learning (Moreno,
2005; Schroeder, Adesope, & Barouch Gilbert, 2012). Some researchers have expressed reservations that pedagogical agents may not be cost-effective (Choi & Clark, 2006; Clark & Choi, 2005; 2007). However, while it previously may have taken a considerable amount of time and resources to design and implement a pedagogical agent within a learning environment, recent advances in technology make pedagogical agent-based systems more accessible and affordable to educators.
Journal of Teaching and Learning with Technology